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Friday, November 29, 2013

History of Borobudur Temple

History Of Borobudur Temple

 

Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple Borobudur, located in District Magelang
which is located south + 15 miles south of the city Magelang kedu the hilly terrain almost entirely surrounded bymountainsthe mountains surrounding the Borobudur Temple in the east of which there are Merbabu West and Mount MerapiSumbing Sea and Mount Sindoro.

In ethnic Chinesethis temple is also called 婆罗 浮屠 (Hanyu Pinyinpo luo  TU) in Mandarin.


 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORIGINS BOROBUDUR
 
TIME ESTABLISHED



 
Many books - history books will write about Borobudur Borobudur Temple but when it was founded can notknow for sure
but an estimate can be obtained with a short writing carved on the original frame Borobudur reliefs feet (KarwaWibhangga)
shows similar letter to the one got from the inscriptions in the late twentieth century - 8 until the early twentieth century - 9
of evidence - such evidence can drag the conclusion that Borobudur was founded around the year 800 AD

 

The conclusion of the above turned out to correspond exactly to the historical framework of Indonesia in generaland the history of those in the Central Java in particular
century period between - 8 and the mid-century - in the famous 9th century Sailendra Dynasty Gold
triumph is the mark on the rise and a large number of temples on the slopes - slopes most distinctive buildingstanding while the scattered Hindus in the plains - plains are typical Buddhist building but there are also sometypical Hindu

Thus it can be concluded that the drag on the Borobudur Temple was built by the Sailendra dynasty famous in history because as efforts to idealize and glorify Buddhism Mahayana.


Borobudur Development Phase


 
* The first stage
Borobudur construction period is unknown (estimated between 750 and 850 AD). Initially built-storey apartment layoutIt seems designed as a terraced pyramid. but later changed. As evidence of a demolished apartment layout.
* The second stage
Borobudur foundation widened, plus two square steps and one step directly circle given a large stupa.
* The third stage
Steps on the circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced by three railroad circles.Stupas built on top of these steps with a large stupa in the middle.
* The fourth stage
There are minor changes such as making changes to the stairs and curved reliefs above the door.

Recovery



Borobudur the wonders of the world towered among the surrounding lowlands.

It will never make sense they see the greatest art is the result of the work was amazing and not much sense anymore when in Borobudur say never experienced damage

Borobudur temple that is so forgotten for a long period even centuries - the building is so magnificent in faced with the destruction process.
Kira - think only 150 years old temple of Borobudur in use as a center of pilgrimage, a short time compared to the age when workers decorate / build a natural hill of Borobudur temple with stone - stone under a very famousSamaratungga,
around 800 - an end to the kingdom of Mataram know 930 M central Javanese life and culture shifted to the east

Similarly, because of the long neglected neglected - long in there - here growing variety - variety of wild plantsgradually become overgrown and covered buildings.
At about - about - century Borobudur 10 abandoned and forgotten.



New in 1814 AD thanks to the efforts of Sir Thomas Stamford Rafles Borobudur emerge from the darkness of the past.
Rafles was Lieutenant Governor-General of Englandwhen Indonesia was in control / in jajah England in 1811AD -1816 AD

In 1835 AD the whole temple in the release of what became prohibitive view of the second president namedHartman,
being so interested in your Borobudur temple so he sought further cleaning,
debris that was covering the temples and remove the soil that covered the halls of the temple in the temple get rid of all that better in comparison before.

RESCUE 1
Since Borobudur Temple is found repair and restoration efforts began back building Borobudur
first - first just done a small - scale and manufacturing drawings - drawings and photos - photo reliefs.
Restoration of Borobudur temple which was first held in 1907 AD - 1911 AD under the leadership of Mr. Van erfthe intention is to avoid damage - damage greater than building Borobudur

 

although much of the wall or walls - walls especially under level three of the Northwest, North and Northeast arestill looked lopsided and very worrying for the visitors as well as the building itself, but the work has been temporarily Van Erp Borobudur can be saved from further destruction large.

Regarding the gate - gate only a few are already in that time have done to restore the glory of the past,
but also need to realize that year - the year in pass Borobudur during hidden in the bush - the bush has indirectly cover and protect from inclement weather that might damage the building Borobudur,
Van Erp and meleseknya found slanted wall - the wall of the building was not very dangerous building,
Opinion was until 50 years later is not wrong but since 1960 AD Mr. Van erf opinion it started in doubt and in fear there will be more damage

Restoration of Borobudur temple



 
Restoration of Borobudur temple commenced on August 10, 1973
prasati commencement of work restoration of Borobudur temple is located on the Northwest Facing east
refurbishment employees no less than 600 of them have power - of young high school graduates and SIM
building which was awarded in education, especially in the theory and practice in the field of ArchaeologyChemika (CA) and Technology Archaeology (TA)

Technology Archaeology duty unpacking and installing stone - stone Borobudur Archaeological while Chemikacharge of cleaning and repairing stones - stones that are cracked and broken,
job - job retention in the archeology is all handled by the restoration of Borobudur temple,
while the work of a technical nature such as the provision of transport providing materials - building materialshandled by contractors
(PT Nidya WORKS and THE CONTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION OF THE filipine).

Part - the part that Borobudur Temple is part Rupadhatu pugar ie a lower level of the square, while legsBorobudur Temple and porch I, IIIII and stupa facelift participate in the restoration was completed on February 23, 1983 under the chairmanship of DR M Soekmono with inscriptions on a stone weighing mark + 20 Tons.

Inscription inauguration of the completion of restoration in western courtyard with a huge rock on the make withthe two parts of the north-facing one another facing east
writing of the tablets was signed directly by the experts and skilled workers from Yogyakarta who worked on therestoration of Borobudur temple project.

 overview of the process of restoration of Borobudur temple Time
* 1814 - Sir Thomas Stamford RafflesGovernor-General of the United Kingdom in Javaheard of the discoveryof archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur.
Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the location of the discoverya hill covered with shrubs.
* 1873 - The first monograph published about the temple.
* 1900 - The Dutch East Indies government established a committee of restoration and maintenance of Borobudur.
* 1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911.
* 1926 - Borobudur restored againbut stopped in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II.
* 1956 - The Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO.
ProfDrC. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur.
* 1963 - The Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudurbut the mess after the events of the G-30-S.
* 1968 - At a conference-15 in FranceUNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur.
* 1971 - The Government of Indonesia established a body chaired Prof.Ir.Roosseno restoration of Borobudur.
* 1972 - International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries andRoosseno as chairman.
UNESCO-sponsored committees provide 5 million U.S. dollars from the cost of restoration of 7750 million U.S. dollars.
The rest is covered Indonesia.
* August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the commencement of the restoration of Borobudur;restoration was completed in 1984
* January 21, 1985 - bomb attacks that destroyed some of the stupa at Borobudur was soon restored.
The attack carried out by the Islamic extremist group led by Husein Ali Al Ethiopia.
* 1991 - Borobudur designated as UNESCO World Heritage.


 ORIGINS NAME BOROBUDUR
 Many theories attempt to explain the name of this temple.One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces.In addition there are some other folk etymology.Suppose borobudur word derived from the words "the Buddha" is due to shift the sound to Borobudur.Another explanation is that the name is derived from two words "coal" and "beduhur".The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery, while there are also other explanations where the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery complex and beduhur meaning is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above".So the point is a monastery or hostel located on high ground.Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation for a doctorate in 1950 found that Borobudur is a place of worship.Based on the inscriptions Karangtengah and Kahulunan, Casparis estimate Borobudur is the founder of the dynasty king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga, doing construction around 824 ADThe giant new building could be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani.Borobudur Development is expected to take half a century.In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima (tax-free land) by Cri Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra.Kamulan term itself comes from the word meaning first place origin, the ancestral shrine to glorify,possible ancestors of the dynasty Sailendra.Casparis estimates that Sambhāra Bhudhāra Bhumi in Sanskrit means "Hill set ten levels boddhisattwa virtues", was the original name of Borobudur.BUILDING BOROBUDURBUILDING DESCRIPTION BOROBUDUR

Borobudur Temple was built using stone Adhesit 55,000 M3Borobudur Temple building a pyramid-shaped staircase - stair steps with the rose in all - four sides (north, south, east and west)at Borobudur no room where people can not get in but could rise to the top only.Width building Borobudur 123 MLong building Borobudur 123 MAt the turning point of 113 MAnd high building Borobudur 30.5 MAt the foot of the original stone Adhesit closed by as much as 12 750 M3 corridor undaknya.Borobudur has the basic structure punden terraces, with a six-yard square, three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak.Also scattered in all the court was several stupas.Ten yard owned Borobudur illustrates clearly the Mahayana school of philosophy.Like a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha.The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire".This section is mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple.In addition to the closed structure there are 120 panels Kammawibhangga story.A small portion was set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section.


Four floors with walls berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu.
The floor is rectangular.
Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to break free from lust but still bound manner and form.
This level represents the nature among whichbetween nature and the natural bottom up.
In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above ballustrade or breezeway.

Starting the fifth to the seventh floor walls are not berelief.
This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not).
Circular floor plan.
This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapesbut have not reached nirvana.
Statues of Buddha placed in a stupa covered with holes as in captivity.
From outside the statues were still vaguely visible.

The highest level that describes the lack of form is represented in the form of the largest and highest stupa.
Stupa described plain without the holes.
In the largest stupa Buddha statue ever found imperfect or unfinished also called Buddhawhodisalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statuebut through further research there never was a statue at the main stupawhich was not completed sculpture was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times.
according to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process is not to be tampered with.
Archaeological excavations carried out in the courtyard of this temple found many statues like this.

In the pastseveral Buddha statues along with 30 stones with reliefstwo stone lionssome kala-shaped stone,stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn who visited the Dutch East Indies (nowIndonesiain 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as it.


 Borobudur did not have worship spaces like other temples.That there are long hallways which is a narrow road.The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level.In the halls is expected to conduct Buddhist ceremonies walk around the temple to the right.Form of the building without room and terraced structure is believed to be the development of a form punden terraces, which is a form of original architecture from prehistoric Indonesia.Borobudur structure when viewed from above form the structure of the Mandala.Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but the Interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue.STATUE



 

Inside the building there is a statue of Buddha - Buddha statue numbered 504 pieces including the following:Buddha statue found in niches - niches: 432 FruitWhile on the terrace - Terrace I, II, III totaled 72 FruitTotal: 504 FruitTo be more clear arrangement - arrangement of statues of Buddha in the Buddha as follows:1. Step I teradapat: 104 Statue of Buddha2. There Step II: 104 Statue of Buddha3. There Step III: 88 Buddha Statue4. There Step IV: 22 Buddha Statue5. There Step V: 64 Statue of Buddha6. There Terrace Round I: 32 Buddha Statue7. There is a patio Round II: 24 Buddha Statue8. There Terrace Round III: 16 Buddha StatueTotal: 504 Buddha StatueBuddha statues at a glance it looks like everything but the truth is there are very clear differences differences and distinguish from each other which is the hand gesture called Mudra and is characteristic for each statuehand gesture Buddha statue in Borobudur temple there are 6 kinds just for variety because variety mudra which had by facing all directions (North West and South East) at the Rupadhatu steps V and on the arupadhatu generally describe the same purpose that the mudras number there are five principalThe fifth mudra is Bhumispara - Wara Mudra - Mudra, Dhayana - Mudra, Abhaya - Mudra, Dharma Chakra - Mudra.LION STATUE
 In addition Borobudur Buddhist statues there are also lions lions amount should be no less than 32 pieces but when the count now dwindling due to various reasons the only big lion statue located on the western side of the courtyard facing west as well - if I'm keeping The magnificent Borobudur temple buildings and graceful.STUPA

- Stupa ParentLarger than the stupa - other stupa and is situated in the middle - the middle of the top of which is mhkota of the entire building Borobudur monument,Stupa stem diameter 9.90 + M's highest peak called pinakel / Yasti Cikkara, located above and also trletak Padmaganda Harmika in line.- Stupa Hollow / OverlayThe meaning or overlay perforated stupa Stupa is located on the terrace I, II, III in which there is a statue of Buddha.In perforated stupa Borobudur whole number 72 Fruit, stupa - stupa is located at ArupadhatuI found 32 Terrace StupaTerrace II there were 24 StupaTerrace III are 16 StupaNumber 72 Stupa- Small StupaSmall stupa shaped stupa is almost the same as the other in the menojol only difference is the smaller size of the stupa of the other, as if - as if a decoration building Borobudur keberadaanstupa occupy niches - niches in step II saampai step to V, while in step I Keben form and partly in the form of a small number of small stupa Stupa there Fruit 1472.RELIEF


 At every level carved reliefs on temple walls.These reliefs read clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east.These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs Jataka stories.The reading of these stories are always the starting relief, and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, beginning on the left and ends on the right side of the gate.So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real (main) and toward the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.In sequence, the story on meaningful temple reliefs briefly as follows:Karmawibhangga

 In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the temple on foot,reliefs that decorate the walls of a hidden shelf illustrates the law of karma.Rows of relief is not a story series (series),but in every frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation.Relief will not only give an overview of the human moral turpitude accompanied by penalties that will be obtained,but also human and reward good deeds.Overall a depiction of human life in the circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and by Buddhism chain is exactly what will be concluded towards perfectionLalitavistara


 A depiction of the Buddha in a row history reliefs (but not a complete history)which starts from the Buddha's descent from heaven Tusita, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras.Reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs.The 27 frames are describing activity, both in heaven and on earth, in preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of Buddha Bodhisattva as the candidate.The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha as Prince Siddhartha arcapada, son of King Suddhodana and queen Maya of Kapilavastu Affairs.Relief amounted to 120 frames, which ended with the first sermon, which is symbolically expressed as a Screening Wheel of Dharma, the Buddha's teaching is called dharma which also means "law", whereas dharma is represented as a wheel.Jataka AND awadana


 Jataka stories of the Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha before.Protrusion of the contents is the subject of good works, which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature.Indeed, the collection service / good deeds is in the preparation stage of the business to the level of the Buddha's.While awadana, basically almost the same but the culprit is not Jataka the Bodhisattva, but others and the stories collected in the book which means noble deeds Diwyawadana godlike, and the book awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories.In the reliefs of Borobudur and awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning they are in the same row without a distinguishable.The set of the best-known of the life of the Bodhisattva is Jatakamala or strands Jataka stories, Aryasura and poet who lived in the 4th century AD.Gandawyuha


Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for Top Knowledge of Truth by Sudhana.Description of the frame 460 based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.ARCA BUDDHA


 Apart form buddha in Buddhist cosmology carved in the wall, there are many statues of Borobudur buddha sitting cross-legged in the lotus position and showing mudras or symbolic hand gesture given.Buddha statue in niches Rupadhatu level, set by the line on the outside of the balustrade.Dwindling on the side of it.Balustrade of the first row consists of 104 niches, the second 104 niches, niches third row 88, row 72 niches fourth and fifth rows 64 niches.Total there are 432 statues of Buddha at the Rupadhatu.At the Arupadhatu (three circular courtyard), statues of Buddha placed in stupas berterawang (perforated).At first there were 32 yard circular stupa, stupa court both 24, and a third court are 16 stupas, all total 72 stupas.Of the original number as many as 504 Buddha statues, over 300 have been damaged (mostly headless) and 43 missing (since the monument's discovery, heads of Buddha is often stolen as collector's item, mostly by foreign museums).On the face of all these buddha statues look similar, but there are subtle differences among them, namely the mudra or hand gesture position.There are five classes of mudra: North, East, South, West, and Central, all based on five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings.Fourth balustrade has four mudras: North, East, South, and West,where each buddha statue facing towards the show typical mudra.Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and statues of Buddha in the 72 stupas on the upper court berterawang showing mudras: Middle or Central.Each mudra symbolizes the five Dhyani Buddhas;each with its own symbolic meaning







 Taken from Wikipedia Indonesia & Scribd

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